1. Change in the survival mechanisms of the prison after 80s was mainly due to the large number of young inmates coming in who showed no respect for the old generation and the norms of the prison. These people survived in the prison by creating prison gangs or protective associations that resolved conflicts in the prison (Irwin, 2005).
Hyperghetto is the fourth stage in the development of ‘peculiar institutions’ and in the sequential order, it follows slavery. Ghetto is used to exclude African-Americans from the general society with Government’s encouragement and both prison and hyperghetto are indistinguishable (Irwin, 2005).
State Social Capital
State Social Capital is a cooperative engagement of a group of people with a prescribed set of rules, in this case inmates, to meet common goals like violence prevention and maintenance of order in the prison which will make their survival in the prison less difficult and help gain the feeling of trust, confidence and participation.
“the mix” : Is a type of prison adaptive modes to help the inmates for coping with the new environment for the period of time they have to spend in there (Irwin, 2005).
Classification of prisoners
Irwin classifies the prisoners as
- The Thief: A career criminal who has taken committing crime as his career and doing time as the cost of doing business.
- State-raised youth: Are those who grew up in a supervised setting such as group homes or foster care and then juvenile detention centres or adult jails before prison.
- The Square John: These types of prisoners hold conventional values and otherwise lead a normal life (Irwin, 2005).