Electricity has become of main importance in the lives of many people in the world today. There are quite a number of methods that are well known in the generation of electricity. Electricity can either be generated mechanically or chemically depending on the electricity generating method used in the plant. The simple generation of electricity involves the passage of energy from one source to another. As the early physicists stated in the earlier years that energy is neither created or lost but is simply converted from one form to another. The way in which a generator functions in the production of electricity is that it converts the mechanical energy produced by the rotation into electricity. In this case we see that energy has not been created at all but has been converted from Kinetic energy to potential energy. Kinetic energy is energy produced due to motion whilst potential energy is the energy that is possessed by particles in a certain arrangement in space.
The effect of the magnet in electricity generation
There is very much power that is induced by the magnetic filed because of its arrangement of electrons and magnetic influx. This magnetic field will thus be transferred as energy only when the magnet is in motion. The magnet has to be put in such a manner that it provides a cyclic motion. The way that the magnets are set up is that they are held at a stationery position close to the shaft that is coiled with wire right round.
By completely rotating the position of the shaft the magnetic filed is then changed in position from time to time. By rotating the copper wire coiled shaft between the magnets very quickly an emf (Voltage) is produced between the end terminals of the coil.
There are certain points that you should note when it comes to the generation of electricity through the use of magnets. These points have been listed below in detail.
• Electricity is generated under normal conditions when a metal conductor that is coiled with a wire around it is rotated within a magnetic field.
• The electricity generated by the magnet is directly proportional to the force that is put in when rotating the conductor. This is due to the fact that we stated above that energy is neither created nor lost but is simply generated from one form to another.
• The input power for the generator is always greater than the output power of the generator as most of the energy is lost as heat to the outside environment due to friction and resistance in the conducting wire.
Using magnets to generate electricity in wires
When you have a uniform magnetic filed produced by a magnet and you put a straight wire in such a position that the wire and the direction of motion and the magnetic filed are all at right angles to each other.
The emf or voltage produced by the generators will appear at the terminals of the wires. The voltage can be calculated as the length of the wire multiplied by the magnetic field strength and the velocity of the subject in motion. There arrangement of the wires and magnets in a generator is in such a way that electricity is generated through the motion. The arrangement of the wires and shaft are in such a manner that the energy input is lower than the energy output. The electricity generated through the use of magnets has been the most economic method to generate electricity. This has made a great turnaround in the electric generating plants. Such as the wind and the hydroelectric power generation. In the hydro power station water is used to propel the shaft that is between the magnets and thereby generating the emf voltage between the end terminals.
When at any one time if a magnetic flux density is passed round a conductor an emf or voltage is produced. A generator is almost the same as a motor but it defers from the way that they are powered. The coil of the generator is very much different in that it is generated by means of external power. These generators can either be driven by wind water and steam. As the core of the generator begins to rotate between the magnets the magnetic flux cuts the wires and an emf is produced. The electricity produced by the generators is proportional to the power forcing the shaft to rotate between the magnets. Thus the more the input that brought fourth the more the electricity that can be generated at that given time. This in turn brings us to the need to have the best and adequate source of energy for the generators when producing electricity. There are quite a number of alternatives that can be used to generator electricity. The well known and best method that is used in the world to generate electricity is water. Water generated electricity is known as the hydro power. This power is normally generated using turbines that are just like generators and are propelled by the water. The water that has been put in a dam and allowed to pass through open gates is one of the best methods to produce a great deal of power to generate electricity. This is one of the cheapest and most common methods of generating electricity world over.
The fundamental substances that are behind the production of electricity using magnets are the electrons. The electrons produce an emf as they move from one energy position to another in an electrical circuit. This is one way in which electricity is produced in a circuit within a generator. The electric generation process starts when the conductor and the generator allow the electrons to start moving freely within the wires.
The basis of the generation of electricity is the simple movement of the magnet round the conductor. The conductor can be any metal that has a good effect of conducting electricity. Another way that you may be able to generate electricity is by inserting two different types of conductors into salt water. When the two different conductors are made to complete a circuit by touching the bulb terminals the light bulb shines. Well, this is a way that you can be able to generate electricity but the idea behind all these processes of generating electricity is the flow of electrons. The ability to move electrons from level to another produces the desired emf (Voltage). One thing to note in the generation of electricity using magnets is that when a moving magnetic field through a copper wire is induced an emf is produced between the terminals of the wires.
Setting up a generator to produce the electricity is very much easy and can even be done as an experimental test at home or even in the laboratory. All you need to do when setting up the apparatus is to make sure that the conductor, the copper wire and the magnetic field are at right angles to each other. Generating electricity with generators is very economical as most of the sources of energy to power the generators will never seize. These sources include; wind, water and steam.