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Free «Linking Goals, Objectives, Tactics, and Strategy in Public Relations» Essay Sample


Writing good public relations (PR) article requires following specific rules for it to be approved by other PR practitioners. An effective writing begins by specifically setting goals and objectives, employing tactics, and using strategies that would further lead to the production of an effective PR paper. This presentation discusses the whole process of writing a good PR paper by reviewing the PR article by Grunig (2009). The intent of the analysis is to make a resounding conclusion of whether the article sanctified all the doctrines of a PR paper. This presentation explores the relevance of Grunig (2009) article by answering the three questions below:

  1. Does the journal have goals and objectives?
  2. What are the journal’s tactics and strategies?
  3. Is there a link between goals and objectives, tactics and strategies?

Setting Goals and Objectives

Goals and objectives in a PR article aim at addressing a pertinent issue in the society that is under analysis. Goals and objectives seek to give direction on to clients on likely events. By setting goals and objectives, clients should be able to know the future changes that would take place. Goals are broad-based PR statements that define what a PR strategy would do in order to resolve an impasse and build reputation or develop a relationship on a given PR task. On the other hand, objectives should be short, precise, and measurable with regard to what a PR strategy should do in order to reach a given goal. In essence, an objective is a short-term plan that seeks to achieve a given goal.    



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PR goals should be in line with an organization’s goals. A PR goal should be reflective of what an organization ought to intend to communicate to its clients in order to achieve both long-term and short-term business strategies. A PR goal can either be reputational; to identify a self-image, and how clients should perceive a given organization image, relationship oriented; the interaction with the target group in the public, or task-oriented; ability to communicate the intended purpose. 

Objectives in a PR article should have a significant impact on its intended clientele in a bid either to reinforce a positive attitude or to convince the clientele to do something. In addition, a good PR strategy should be time-bound, quantifiable, and precise in achieving the long-term and short-term goals of an organization. A PR strategy should aim at improving the understanding of clients on a given product idea, make the client choose whether a product is good or bad, and help the client to take appropriate action and buy a product.  

Grunig (2009) is a PR article that intends to communicate to the public about the effectiveness of digital media in improving the PR role in the global sphere. The PR practitioners should be weary of the strategic, by two-sided, interrelated, and symmetrical, and nature the digital media. Regardless of the new opportunity, PR professionals are either reluctant to live up to the opportunities created or using the new platform in the conventional way. In order to answer the first question posed in the introduction, Grunig (2009) aims at changing the practitioners’ way of using the new digital media. Moreover, the author asserts that in an organization segments the public and development partners, it is anticipated that issues will be dealt with if communication takes place at all relevant stages. The goal of Grunig (2009) is to sensitize the PR professionals on the need of using the new digital media to make PR strategies appeal at the global market.

In order to attain the broad based goal of the article, the author should set aims and objectives that would not only be measurable, but also precise and time-bound. Grunig (2009) sets a number of generic principles whose outcome can be measured if the new digital media is put into action. The generic principles include the following:

  • Empowerment of PR department should begin with the chief communications officer who will in turn seek look for dominant relationships with senior managers who make critical decisions in an organisation.
  • The purpose of an integrated communication function is to bring together all the programs in a single department and coordinate the different departments for an effective communication purpose.
  • A distinct management function is critical in moving communication resources within the various organization departments like the finance, human resource, and law that should all be integrated.
  • An excellent PR unit is important in the day-to-day communication activities by giving the responsibility to one particular senior manager to direct PR programmes.
  • PR should develop well-articulated internal and external communication channels with the public to review the consequences of decisions made by organisations. This is important, because both the public and organisations have specific demands upon which decisions should be made.
  • Two-way and balanced communication channel in PR should use scholarly findings, listening, and dialogue to run an organisation’s affairs by managing internal and external relationships through a two-way interactive forum.
  • A good PR organisation system should be diverse especially if the public environment widens, and include both females and male PR professionals from different races, ethnic groups, and cultural backgrounds.
  • The PR department ought to withhold and promote good ethical principles and socially responsible human interactive behaviours.

The six generic principles identified by Grunig (2009) contribute to the definition of a good PR strategy at the global sphere that considers political, economical, and cultural diversity that the new digital media should help PR address.  Therefore, the objective of the article Grunig (2009) article is to use the new media as a global force in solving the generic principles highlighted above. The six generic principles are quantifiable more so after the author distinctly outlined them before recognising the role of new media in addressing the issues. In addition, a PR objectives should either be cognitive affective or connotative, PR strategies ought to be explicitly stated with regard to the relationship with both the organization and the public. Furthermore, Grunig (2009) has identified the role of PR in harmonising the roles and responsibilities of an organisation against those of the public. In the six contextual frameworks identified, the author uses the term internal and external to refer to organisational and public responsibilities. At this moment, this presentation is affirmative that Grunig (2009) meets the threshold of a good PR documentation. Additionally, the goals and objectives have been clearly stated with respect the demands of PR philosophies.  

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Tactics and Strategies

The presentation also answers if Grunig (2009) needs tactical and strategic principles of PR. In PR tactics refer to the tools that a PR professional uses to support the objectives and the strategies used. In essence, a tactic refers to the actual thing that practitioners does to achieve a given PR strategy. However, in the execution of the tactics, a PR professional should have a significant population that PR specifically targets. In addition, the tactic employed should be able to evaluate the kind of information that goes out to the public. As a result, there should be mechanisms in place to reach out to the public using the available resources.

Taking the provisions of PR outlined above, Grunig (2009) observes that “As of June 30, 2009, there were 1,668,870,408 Internet users in the world-24% of the world’s population of nearly 6.8 billion” (p.3). Most of Internet users come from the developed economies as most organisation in the countries have launch their online sites. The amazing number of online users defines the superiority of the new media as a platform that PR professionals should use to sell their PR ideals. Likewise, the tactic of using new media to reach the global market should be informed by the understanding of the diverse needs of the needs global community. This is why it is important to ensure that organisations employ people of different gender, ethnicity, race, and cultural background to accommodate as many people as possible. Therefore, the objective of using a diverse workforce in international organisations is therefore a tactic as well. This is affirmation on the interrelatedness of PR goals and objectives and tactical approach.

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Grunig (2009) employs the tactics below to convey PR strategy:

Controlled: digital media like websites and reading blogs

Interpersonal: meeting the clientele, initiating private and personal talks with the public, and all relevant stakeholders

Sponsorships: the author has identified how most organisations are forming non-profit alliances and offer scholarship programmes to the site users.

Uncontrolled: General Motors (GM) is cited by the author to have used online press releases to make the public know of their bankruptcy (Grunig, 2009).      

Tactics implementation strategies depend on the view an individual practitioner through the development of strategic plans. The plans are designed to reflect the belief that a potential PR strategy should work within the allocated budget and via the use of available technology. This is a good paint as Grunig (2009) has recognised the relevance of working with information manager. The role of the manager should be to integrate of the needs of the various departments before coming up with a comprehensive PR strategy. Tactic implementation of PR should therefore be in line with the organisational goals as stipulated by Grunig (2009) in the generic principles above. The author again links tactic implementation to goals and objectives.

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Communication Strategy

Communication strategy used by Grunig (2009) links the goals and objectives, tactics, and PR strategy to answer the third question. Communication refers to the medium which PR passes organisation information to the public and depending on the approach; message can either pass or fail. At the global platform, PR should ensure that the information getting out there should be sensitive to the diversity issues raised in this presentation. In addition, some messages can be persuasive to convince the public on given steps taken by an organisation. Grunig (2009) cites that case of GM that used to online platform to persuade the public to access their call to file for bankruptcy. Grunig (2009) identifies two approaches of theory development: symbolic, interpretative and strategic management, behavioural paradigms as strategic management tools for a PR. This is also developed in what is referred to as Grunig theory where the author identifies the elements of modernism and postmodernism in strategic management of PR. In finding a common ground, Grunig (2009) defines the midpoint as semi-modernism.

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Strategic Plan

A good PR article should have a budget limit upon which the strategy works. In addition, PR professional should be able to identify necessary resources that will be required in the process of implementing the strategy. Grunig (2009) proposes the use of checklist, GANTT, and PERT charts in order to plan a PR project.


In conclusion, Grunig (2009) is a perfect example of a working PR strategy. The objectives have been well-developed and to ensure that the goals and objectives are prompt, the author uses the six generic principles that would only be successful if PR professionals use the new digital media. The tactics and strategies used by Grunig (2009) link to the goals and objectives as well as the article general strategy to develop a working PR philosophy. Lastly, this is the only way through which organizations, the public, and other important stakeholders will meaningfully contribute to the success of a PR strategy.


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