1. COOPERATIVE LEARNING is a technique that involves a group of students working together either in a certain study or a field project. In this form of learning a teacher is required to give structure cooperative independence to the learners. The main components of cooperative learning are as follows according to Hopkins 2002.
a) Positive interdependence: a teacher can note when the learners have achieved a certain goal after they are seen to be doing certain tasks together. This can be like if they can swim and sink together after swimming lesson has been taught. To achieve these, mutual goals, dividing labor, dividing materials and responsibilities should be practiced. Also ensuring that what each learner has contributed is beneficial to the other members of the group.
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b) Individual accountability: the main theme in individual accountability is to ensure that the students are learning together but when it comes to performing, each student performs alone. The importance of this component is to ensure that no learner will use the work of another learner. At the end of the group work one should be able to determine whether the group has been a success in achieving its objectives and whether each individual has been able to achieve the goals of the study.
c) Face to face interaction: Those interpersonal dynamics and cognitive activities that are of essence are able to develop when students encourage each other's learning. This can be achieved any forming group discussions to assist those that are not good in certain n fields or to solve problem, also to elaborate the nature of those topics that they are being taught in class. Also they do compare what is being taught at the moment and what has been taught before. Through these promotive learning students are able to be personally committed to each other as well as in their joint goals.
d) Interpersonal and small group social skills: in this component of cooperative learning, it involves students learning their academic work and also their interpersonal and small groups know ledges. Therefore, in such a group their must be leaders who are elected to ensure that the group undertakes smoother decisions. Also the group should be able to know how to make decisions, build trust within them selves, know how to communicate and how to solve conflicts arising within the group. Due to the nature of this component which is more complex, it's the responsibility of the teachers to ensure that they encourage much greater performance through teaching the cooperative skill components as a topic in cooperative lessons. Once the students are able to develop this knowledge, they will have no much trouble running later groups or team works in future, and will be more organized than initial work groups.
e) Group processing: Once the students have completed all their tasks, it's advisable to give them time and formulas so that they can analyze whether their learning groups are building and how well they are able to utilize their skills. This form of cooperative component utilizes both task work and teamwork with its objective being to give better results on the next planned project.
2. DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD OF LEARNING: This method of learning is designed in such a way that it boosts academic learning time. This method does not assume that students can develop their skill whether alone or in agroup. Therefore it utilizes the method of assisting the students to learn step by step and ensuring that the students know the purpose and the results of each step they learn. Students are able to utilize their time more efficiently to learn more, once the teacher has explained to them what they are expected to learn and has also demonstrated to them. This teaching strategy has the following components:
f) Ensuring that clear goals are specified to the students and that they understand these goals.
g) Giving students series of assignments to work on and ensuring that they are well organized.
h) Giving brief explanation and illustrations which are clear to the students.
i) to be able to decide whether the students have understood the topic, ask them frequent questions.
j) Allocating enough time to the students to enable them practice what they have learnt.
3. DISCOVERY METHOD OF TEACHING: This mode of teaching utilizes the concept of encouraging the students to be more active in answering many questions or by solving several problems in order to grasp a certain idea. The main components in this approach are as follows according to Rahman, 2005, P. 87-91
a) The student: the student plays the role of an active participant whose work will be solving problems which he has understood by using the process of structuring learning experiences of his own.
b) The teacher: His role is that of the person giving the resources for the student.
c) The environment: this involves the freedom and the organization but gives freedom most priority.
d) The content: this may include the propositional truth which assists the student or aids the student once he has grasped it, confronted it or captured it for his own benefits.
4. QUESTION STRATEGY: This method is also known as Socratic Method. According to Giridhar, 2005, P. 58-69, it involves teaching by asking but not telling. Every good teaching starts with asking questions but not telling answers. Using this method a teacher is able to check on each learners understanding. It also has the benefit of encouraging learners to connect and center their thinking on the key conceptions and ideas. This method is also used to inspire gifted and talented students in order for them to embrace cognitive thoughts at a higher level. By this method, students are able to assist their teachers to redefine their own perspectives and their intensities of knowledge. Among its most useful feature is that it enables the teacher to realize what a student knows and what he does not know. Teaching skills are significant for teachers at all points, as well as parents, particularly those involved in home schooling. One of the key teaching techniques that are of immense significance is using questioning as a learning tool.
The aim of this lesson plan will be to determine how pupils can learn though answering questions. This will be a communication topic from English subject. By using the question method of teaching, the teacher will be able to tell what each student knows and which areas he is good at and which areas he is strong. A student who is shy to ask questions directly will be able to use the questionnaire to ask the teacher or give his own thoughts and opinions. This will be useful to both the teacher and the other group at large, as it might shed new concepts that would have otherwise be left to one individual. Also by using the questions, the instructor will be able to acclimatize the materials and stage of the lesson to better meet the students necessitates.
This method of teaching will also allow more participation and interaction between the student and the teacher as there will be more communication compared to lecturing which only allows the teacher to give his own views which at times the students view as boring. This is a dual purpose way and its not only the student who will learn but also the teacher will learn more from the answers given by the students. Most students would also want to be challenged by asking broader questions and this acts a means of motivating them to learn more. The teacher can ask Questions at the lowest -familiarity-and the highest -assessment-levels of thinking skills. Therefore the students have a chance to listen and speak. (Gallenstein, 2004)
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