“Note to the Reader” belongs to the epistolary genre, the genre of a literature letter.
The characteristics features of the epistolary genre, in which the text is written, are: the author reflects on the surrounding world, on himself, on the emotions which he had during the writing of his biography, travelling and everyday life. The content of the letter is a semantic whole, which is closely connected with the content of the whole book. The letter’s distinctive features are thematic and stylistic freedom. Moreover, another characteristic feature is the clear sensation of the addressee by the author.
b. There are a lot of features belonging to the epistolary genre of the text used by the author. At the beginning of the text the author addresses to the reader, calling them “Dearest humans” and at the end “Humanity, I salute you”, showing thus that he loves all his readers and is sincere to them. His letter is characterized by the individuality of the tone and the style of the letter - it is confident, playful and half official at the same time - the author as if keeps his readers at arm’s length.
The esthetic function of the letter under consideration, caused by the time of its writing, is shown, first of all, in the chosen language, in creation of the necessary turns of phrase, in streamlining of a syllable of the author. Thus, there is a natural communication between his letter and art creativity; there is the so-called “language diffusion”.
The prevailing theme of the letter is the story about the author’s creativity, about what the author writes, and about the difficulties of writing of his biography.
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c. Having read the text, I have made a lot of inferences. One of them is that I do really want to read the book up to the end, as the author intrigued me giving the hints to his life described in the book. Moreover, I could feel the presence of the author in his letter as if he was sitting beside me and speaking to me face-to-face. The personal attitude of the author and addressing to the reader, to me as I am one of them, made me feel good, and the feeling of friendship appeared in my vision of the read letter.
d. The words like “So, it’s my hope, dear reader, that you will think of this book as more of a hello than a goodbye” made me to be beside the author and to feel personal attitude of him to my personality, his honesty in the described events.
Moreover, the author shared his personal thoughts and ideas about his writing of the book. He said:
“This was the book I wanted to write. No matter how dark the subject, or how painful the memories, or how tough times occasionally became, … , I would write without bitterness, name-calling or score-settling. This would be a book written in gratitude to and with love to your whole species, and everything you have done for animals and for me. A thank-you. A book of love” (Lever J, 2009).
e. The author succeeded in choosing the best words and the best ideas to address to the readers for them to make the inferences they made. He could feel the mood of his potential readers, their possible speculations about him, his book and his way of writing. He could skillfully intrigue the readers and made them want to read the whole text of his autobiography.
f. I think there is no need to change anything in the text of the letter. However, if there was such a necessity not to make the inferences which were made, I would have changed the style of writing to more official, more distant. In that case, the readers would feel themselves not to be involved in the process of writing and obviously would not want so much to read the whole book.
The inaugural address of the new political leader of any country
My dear compatriots!
Addressing to each of you in the day which will become the beginning of a new period in the history of our country, I want to express a sincere gratitude for the rendered support. My gratitude is turned to everybody who gave the vote for our union and who voted for other candidates.
We have made a big step forward for the previous months. There are not many world countries, which had gone through a difficult way and endured a lot of sorrow. However, we are obliged to sustain all the difficulties and to make every effort for their overcoming. We are obliged to win in the fight for the independence and democracy. Only then we will achieve the adequate attitude from the world community.
There is a goal in front of us to keep and increase all invaluable achievements of the previous years - the achievements for which our brothers, sisters, and fathers battled. I want to thank especially the defenders of the Fatherland who endured the whole difficulty of the wars.
We bow our heads in front of the memory of soldiers - the defenders of our country who gave their lives for freedom of the Fatherland. We revere the memory of the falling heroes, who put their lives for the independence of people, but possessing the same rights as other people have. And we will continue the business of their life.
I ask you to honor the memory by the minute’s silence. Thank you.
Our country successfully passed the examination for the commitment to the democratic principles. We should go a long and difficult way of development. Democracy is, first of all, sovereignty of the people and respect of other opinion. It is a tolerance to the political opponents and cooperation with them useful for the whole society. Only mutual support will allow us to make common cause for the benefit of all people.
Making myself responsible for our country, I promise you that the interests of society and people of our country will be the fundamental motives in all actions of public authorities. I am sure that I will need to ask your advice in difficult questions of democratic development of our society. I am convinced that you, the people of our state, will always support me.
Today the main strategic task is ensuring of irreversibility of the begun transformations on the way of construction of the independent, constitutional, democratic state with market, and socially-oriented economy. Thus, it is necessary to remember about the identical importance of both components of this task - external and internal.
Yes, our independence has not been recognized by the world community yet. However, at the same time our country is one of the centers of attention of the largest world states. It is caused by the exclusive geopolitical position. If our country manages to overcome all shortcomings of internal life, it can become a positive example for many young, not stable states.
The multinational people of our country made the choice, and our duty is to do our best to execute the will of people. I pledge a word that I will continue the fight for freedom of our people, for strengthening of our state and our independence. With a view of the accelerated economic integration the legislation of our country should be synchronized with the world one in economic, political, cultural, social and other spheres of life.
Our country is open for the investments. However, their number, as well as a whole intensity of economic cooperation, cannot be estimated as positive. The capacity of our country and the possibility of our business are much more serious. We should work at it actively in the nearest future.
Our country can become an important centre of the international transit. We are ready to discuss the questions of development and this segment of economy with all interested parties. The only stipulation of the development of cooperation in this direction is the unconditional respect for the independence won by people.
Unfortunately, at present the income of a considerable part of the population of our country is lower than a living wage. The authorities must be interested in difficult economic and social situations of society.
We can achieve prosperity, because we have huge unused resources. Our priority is to take care of each ordinary citizen in the society. The market economy is obliged to be combined with social guarantees. We should have no beggars; there should not be homeless. Under no circumstances it is possible to suffer from the existence of such problem as homelessness of children - the state and society are obliged to solve the problems of the younger generations.
The world has entered the twenty first century. The time demands from us to master and introduce the advanced technologies in the shortest term. We cannot exist at the expense of export and sale of natural resources. It is necessary to reform economy, to involve all enterprises which do not work, to process the unused lands.
It is necessary to create such a system at which a person can achieve the appropriate living standards. There is a need of prompting for the law and order in all spheres of life without exception among the conditions opening such possibilities. I promise you it will be fulfilled.
When the country has favorable conditions for private business, when the principle of equal opportunities is observed, first of all, by the state, only then it will be possible to speak about country`s restoration from ruins. In order to protect itself from a real threat, our country will aspire to the maximum strengthening of the military potential. Our Armed Forces still need paramount support from the state. It is necessary to make efforts for professional education and the growth of the military personnel. Being a commander-in-chief of our country, I will do my best to strengthen the safety of the state and people.
It is also necessary for each citizen to be protected by law enforcement agencies. It is necessary to develop systematic, purposeful fight against crime and corruption. It is very important to observe the equality for everybody without an exception in front of the law and the Constitution.
Another essentially important sign of democracy is the power reporting in front of the citizens of the country. A civil society can find the possibilities to supervise the actions of authorities. I promise that the activity of the government will be open for people’s deputies and mass media.
We are the country. We are one country. We can overcome all the problems only together. As before, I count on your support very much.
May God protect you!
1. The inaugural address of the new political leader of any country takes a special place in the genre structure of a political discourse. It is unequivocally marked by the individual sender, rigidly adhered to a certain political event, fixed in the provisional and spatial plan. According to Campbell K.K., Jamieson K.H, well-known experts in presidential rhetoric of the USA, a presidential inaugural speech has all specific features of epideictic speech: it is the most important component of the ceremony, the judgment of the nation’s past and future against the present, praise to everything that unites this community is rendered, an elegant literary style and receptions of the strengthening, the exaggerated emphasis of the fact that is already known to the audience.
Joslyn R. characterizes the inaugural address as a “safe” rhetoric. It means that it does not contain polemic statements (it is difficult to find the statement which would cause someone’s disagreement or objection), there is nothing in them that would stimulate the thought or throw a challenge down, anything that would assume the alternative values or programs. All this testifies to a high degree of rituality of this genre, to the prevalence of the factuality over the information value. The lack of novelty in the message, inevitably switches the focus of attention of the participants of communication to other its components.
2. My main aims in writing this piece were to make the reader feel the expressiveness of such a genre as a speech, especially inaugural speech of the new political leader. The integrative function of the inaugural speech is in the assertion of the identity of nations. The most important role in the actualization of the given function is played by the explicit markers like: compatriots, our, we, both, united.
The inaugural speech belongs to those genres of political discourse for which the prevalence of a phatic component of communication as a whole is characteristic. The prevalence of phatic is caused by the fact that this genre enters into political ritual as its major component.
3. The inaugural speech has several characteristic features which make it more vivid and expressive: a) the unification of the audience in the united nation, the uniform nation, as the witness and the full participant of the legitimization ceremony of the new president; b) appeal to the past as to the source of traditional values of the nation; c) declaration of the political principles by which the new government will be guided; d) validity given to the institute of presidency.
4. In the inaugural speech I used different decisions like the frames of freedom and stability:
?) Using this frame, the president addresses to the conditions of the establishment of freedom in the country: soldiers - the defenders of our country, freedom of the Fatherland, the memory of the falling heroes, the independence of people; the constitutional principles of equality: the commitment to democratic principles, etc.
b) Later the president touches upon the expression of the nation’s opinion with the help of frames; he emphasizes the enterprises activity, informational technologies and globalization: The world entered the twenty-first century. The time demands from us to master and introduce advanced technologies in the shortest term. It is necessary to reform economy, to involve all enterprises which do not work, to process the unused lands.
5. The above-mentioned decisions were made purposefully, in order to make the speech more vivid and interesting for listening. The used frames attract the attention of the listener, and they are stored in the memory like key facts.
6. The piece of writing which was completed by me was addressed to the nation of any country; it was made intentionally, not to focus the reader of the listener on a definite country, but to give the opportunity for him/her to penetrate into the atmosphere of the inaugural speech as a whole.
7. The exercise is very challenging and captivating; it allows developing the creative skills and abilities, and it greatly broadens the outlook.
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