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2.1. Introduction

Recent findings show that at least one-third of all English learners between the 6th and 12th grades in the U.S are long term English language learners. Long Term English Learners refer to English learners who have been to U.S schools for at least seven years (Olsen & Jaramillo, 1999). Despite little information regarding these types of learners, it has been found that a large number of these students attend high schools in the U.S. There are a number of Long Term English learners who go unnoticed in schools or not properly understood and, thus, considered as failures. By properly understanding the characteristics and the needs of such learners in the student population, there is a possibility of schools to do a better job of ensuring these students are supported.

There are a number of issues faced by Long Term English Learners in the current schools. Despite the varied sides and aspects of the struggles, literacy in Academics is an area where there is a possibility of educational institutions to make considerable changes in the lives of many students. However, educational systems have not been successful in doing this for a number of years, and thus, the problem still remains unsolved (Olsen, 1997). The main areas of focus of this study are factors relating to academic literacy with much emphasis on acquisition theory language types, second language learning, the order of teaching these languages, native language literacy and absence of the curriculum, as well as additional support.

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2.2. General Characteristics of Long Term English Learners

According to the studies, there are certain characteristics that generally describe Long-term English language learners’ population. Their age ranges between ages of 6 to 12 years; they speak a number of languages and originate from various parts of the world. In addition, they speak at least two languages and sound like English speakers. However, their literary skills are below average in their regional languages, and their academic potential in English is not properly improved in comparison to their oral competence (Meltzer & Hamann, 2005). They are categorized into two major groups such as transnational students: those that have moved into and out of their native countries and the US and obtain their schooling in both areas and local students who live within the country but move from rural to urban areas and obtain their schooling in both rural and urban environments.

In addition, their stay in the U.S has not been reliable in spite of the possibility that they may be born and raised in the US. Their schooling process is also unreliable, due to frequent moves or inconsistent structuring of languages and schools they have attended. As a consequent, they have been affected by the significant gaps in schooling. Their performance in reading and writing is also below the grade level. Also, they do not demonstrate competence in areas where literacy is required. Their general performance in Long Term English learning is low. As a result, they usually have poor grades that are retained in subsequent periods, thus making the student population at a higher chance drop out of school. Their needs are also different from the newly introduced English learners, despite the training of the English language for secondary level students who have just been introduced. The other difficulty faced by educators in dealing with Long-term English Learning is that it is difficult to determine the specialized needs of people, a difficulty compounded with poor statistics on these students in their institutional data.

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2.2.1. Other characteristics of Long Term English Learners

I. Ability to function high in social functioning in both their native language and in English. It has been observed that Long Term English learners are usually orally bilingual. The majority of them function efficiently in everyday social objectives and communication in both their regional languages and English (Menken & Kleyn, 2010). On the other hand, the vocabulary that they use in both social and academic contexts is general and not precise.

As the most part of their lives they have been living in the United States, they show exposure to English. They attend schools where English is the primary language of instruction. As a result, they have been able to develop English. The English language, which they have been accustomed to, is not through regional speakers.

On the contrary, they express their ideas in the same manner like adolescent regional English speaking colleagues. It is worth stressing that while within their home environments, they tend to use their native languages. Thus, they have the ability to function high in social interactions in both English and their native languages. In spite of coming from regions where English is not the main language, English learners tend to use their native languages in the limited situations when they get to secondary schools. As they feel comfortable when using English, they are in the process of losing their native languages.  The language used by Long Term English learners tends to be less complicated and is mainly applied in the social situations. The language they use is usually based on their native languages mixed with English vocabulary, and thus, a switch in codes is observed, as well. This form of English is applicable in many social situations and is a common foundation for language requirements of academic work in precise English.

II. Poor academic language/reading and writing skills. It has been observed that Long Term English Learners have weak academic capabilities and demonstrate considerable academic gaps in writing or reading. In the case of Long Term English Learners, there is a variation in the gaps based on the duration they have taken in a specified language-learning setting, the changes to have occurred in their education, and the time of these changes in relation to their linguistic development (Menken & Kleyn, 2009). In general, Long Term English Learners do not have rich oral language or literary skills required in scholastic English for participation and success in the academic work. They demonstrate low literary skills in their language, and usually only a sketchy academic vocabulary is used in their native language.

In order to take part in academic requirements of the secondary school curriculum, they have to learn more difficult syntax, improved oral language, and specialized vocabulary required to get an understanding of the academic texts and take part in classroom activities. When they are asked to explain their academic progress at school, Long Term English Learners usually talk about difficulties experienced with reading textbooks, making sense of particular words, and having to handle long written messages (Menken, Kleyn & Chae, 2007). Teachers who are involved in of the working process with these students often discover a number of difficulties in writing. There is usually a general weakness in writing, approached by Long Term English Learners in the form of written down oral language and inability to understand a number of academic genres, in addition to weak proficiency in general English syntax, grammar, and vocabulary.

III. Having a habit of non-engagement and learning  passively and development of habits less related to academic success.  Long Term English Learners do not usually draw attention or cause problems. It is remarked that they are usually better behaved in comparison to English proficient or local speakers. However, they usually do not perform the tasks they have been assigned to do. They do not involve themselves in activities that can cause troubles or attract attention of others to themselves by ensuring they stay out of radar (Maxwell-Jolly, Gándara, Mendez-Benavidez, 2007). It has been difficult for teachers to make them active in classes. It is a considered a leaned behavior. There has been a common observation that students that do not have the command of the language are usually reluctant to participate in academic activities. It has been observed that non-participation has increased over the years.

On the other hand, Long Term English Learners do not see that they behave in the same way. They claim that they are courteous, respectful and obedient students. They consider themselves as well-behaved at school. Most administrators, counselors or teachers participated in an interview with the focus groups of Long Term English Learners reported that they believed they have the same competence as other students and do not have difficulties in learning. Most students expressed their enjoyment of school and did not have time to work hard. The lessons provided to them have not been academically engaged. In the survey conducted, students were classified into Long Term English Learners and FEP-Full Education Programs students. It was found that there was a similarity in the desire of the two groups of students to go to college. They considered that that hard work and good performance could lead to attainment of qualification to go to college (Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2010). Both groups of students attended classes with the required materials. There was a difference in their behaviors in a number of ways. It was observed in the amount of reading they did outside classes, their comfort in using academic materials, and the practice of writing what their assignments were, the extent of understanding with regard to assignments and expectations, and the habit of seeking help, knowing that they were expected to take part in class discussions.

IV. There is a significant gap in academic knowledge for Long Term English Learners. Long Term English Learners are not efficient in their linguistic capabilities or academic performance, and the two characteristics are closely related (Lindholm-Leary & Borsato, 2006). The effect of poor English language skills has resulted into little attainment of the goals of a subject matter, which is a major concern in the educational establishments. Students need language skills to assist in accessing academic information being taught. If students do not have the capacity to learn the language used to teach the subject, they are not likely to understand the academic content that is supposed to comprehend. As their performance is below average in reading and writing and have limited vocabulary, they struggle in all their academic areas where literacy is required.

Consequently, they do not understand most parts of the curriculum and basic information that was taught in the learning periods where they have been in and out of the program, with inconsistent assistance. During their learning periods at school, Long Term English Learners have broadened gaps in their language development that has had an effect on their access to academic information. As a result of the limited academic language, they also have limited academic competence. The academic needs that Long Term English Learners have depend on support they are given during any specific school year for accessing the curriculum in a language they have not mastered.

2.3. Blueprint for Teaching English throughout the Day

The blueprint proposed by this study focuses on the tensions and makes an emphasis on the development of academic language, content of the literature, as well as literacy and higher learning. There are more emphasis on some common practices in the early childhood development instruction and supports concerning the argument that language instruction is a factor of teaching English, and not simply teaching in English or enabling children to interact with each other in English. It argues that the early childhood development opportunities are factors of a purposeful daily assistance in the developmental program and arrangement of the course content. The opportunities for formal or informal learning are supposed to be created taking into account the curriculum.

The blueprint comprises three components of the early childhood development taught throughout the day. One of these is the vertical slice of the curriculum. In this systematic early childhood development process, English instruction is considered as its own discipline that follows from the simplified to complex structures within a range of the daily and academic language purposes.

The second component of the early childhood development is front-loading language where an instruction is provided throughout the day as a section of the curriculum across a number of content areas (Kinsella, 2005). The term front-loading also means a focus on a language preceding lesson content. It also involves an analysis of linguistic demands of the content task and their teaching in an up-front investment of time to enable an understanding of the content to the students. It also refers to the forms or components of language required to discuss the structure.

The content instruction, in a similar manner to the action of a piston, involves a forward and backward movement when focusing on a language, its content, and back to the language itself.

The other component of the English language instruction makes use of the teachable moment by applying opportunities as they emerge in the use of a particular language to fill a specific, unspecified need for a word or a manner of expressing an idea or a thought. The full utilization of teachable moments involves the provision of the next language skill required to conduct a task or make an emergency response to stimuli, such as thunderstorm, to initiate a discussion regarding the weather (Jacobs, 2006). Making a proper use of teachable timetable moments implies the application of unique situational contexts for spontaneous learning that  allows expansion and deepening of language skills.

The function of this blueprint is to resolve the problems in the literature by focusing on an approach that enables opportunities for gaining competence in academic language in either formal or informal environments.

2.4. How Long Term Learners are Currently Served at Schools

Learning needs for Long Term English Learners have usually been accomplished through the use of elementary teaching methods.

i. Placement in the mainstream program inappropriately

Surveys conducted in California indicate that the most common program for Long Term English Learners is a process where they are placed in the mainstream classes meant for and mixed with students who have high competence in English (Harklau, 2002). Usually, teachers do not have the knowledge that they have Long Term English Learners within their classes. As a result, activities in these classes do not address the language development or access requirements of Long Term English Learners. There is obscurity with regard to the design of instruction, support, curriculum and materials needed to address particular language needs and language development issues of Long Term English Learners, due to the nature of teachers in these classes having Cross-cultural language and academic development credentials. A research in the district, with the aim of finding levels of English proficiency in mainstream classes, indicated that many classrooms have students that are both proficient in English, those with high academic and native levels of English, as well as non-English proficient students. It was difficult to provide a differentiated instruction, and it was even worsened when there was a broad range of skills. In these classes, teachers may not have the information that some students are Long Term English Learners, and they tend to teach towards the middle (Menken & Kleyn, 2009).

ii. Lack of preparation to teach Long Term English Learners

Irrespective of the classes in which Long Term English Learners are placed, they are usually taught by teachers who have not prepared themselves well. As aresult, they are not usually given the support they need. There is usually lack of preparation from secondary school teachers in the areas of teaching reading and writing skills. They are not trained in the language development; they mainly focus on academic content to be taught in classes (Harklau, 2003). They do not have the approach required to teach grade-level, advanced secondary school academic lessons to students who lack the right English foundation or literary skills required to access the content. It is usually difficult to find teachers that have the tools, skills or preparation required to meet the needs of their students, and only some of teachers have been trained or received professional skills to do so. This is even worsened when these classes are not proportionately assigned to the most prepared teachers in the schools. In a number of settings, as teachers gain the competence, they get the rights to move up to attain “honor classes”. In California, efforts are continuously being made to strengthen the preparedness of teachers to be able to meet the learning needs of students who have varied needs (Goldenberg, 2008). Efforts have been made to infuse understandings of the functions of language and culture in education into preparation of teachers.

iii. Over-assignment and inadequate serving and intervention of Learning Classes

The competence of Long Term English Learners is usually several years below the grade level, and they have weak language competence for academic purposes in both their native language and English if to compare to those who are getting by enough but with a number of errors in language and poor vocabulary (Gold, 2006). In California, on the basis of test scores in Reading or Language Arts on the California Standard Test, when a student is several years below the grade level, he/she is assigned to an Intervention Class. In the classes where the main activity is the English Language development, there are different students that need different methods of attention in order to attain their academic excellence. The English Language Development has been suggested to be incorporated into the 2008 state intervention materials to enable placement of Long Term Learners in this setting to receive the language development. The main area of focus is on reading, without incorporation of language development or targeted oral language development required by Long Term English Learners.

Long Term English Learners who get a score Below Basic are placed into the classes referred to as Strategic Intervention classes, where there are English speakers. This usually occurs in English Development Classes. This intervention does not involve an English Language Development component and has no specific curriculum. Combined with the “regular” English Language Arts class and basic curriculum, review is mainly done in the second period as it was done in the first period. Students may or may not be involved in writing processes.

Some schools opt to put students who score at below basic and basic into reading support classes. It has been found that instructional approaches that are effective with native English speakers do not have positive impacts on learning among a minority group of students. The instruction is the solution to reading; though it does not effectively serve teaching purposes for the language development of minority students to assist them in reading and writing efficiently. Consequently, techniques and approaches that are used in the literary intervention processes to solve the problems faced by native English speakers can assist in the improvement of competence in English to some extent, but the gap will widen, and it will not be easy to address the main needs of Long Term English Learners.

Teachers who participate in the intervention and support classes are not usually provided with description, curriculum or assessment of methods of developing the needs of Long Term English Learners. The materials do not address the kind of writing skills and oral practice of Long Term English Learners that are required to address oral language or vocabulary required to involve learners in academic work and contribute to attainment of high writing and oral skills that improve their ability to understand English (Freeman & Freeman, with Mercuri, 2002). Consequently, the language development does not usually occur in these classes. The intervention classes do not involve English Language Development programs; thus, the needs of Long Term English Learners are not adequately addressed despite their need for courses that adequately address their language development as Long Term English Learners.

2.5. What should be done to Help Long Term Learners

There is an increasing awareness among educators that the current programs and approaches are not efficient in solving difficulties experienced by Long Term English Learners (Flores, Painter, Harlow-Nash & Pachon, 1999). The lag caused by Long Term English Learners has made it difficult to achieve goals set in some districts, and thus, there has been a need to develop a method of solving their learning needs. The number of Long Term English Learners is also increasing. Consequently, a number of strategies are being tried in order to assist Long Term English Learners with their language development.

Schools districts are supposed to ensure fair access to education through programs focusing on the needs of all English Learners. Proficiency should be improved in accordance with the level recommended for participation in English-based curriculum and access to the main curriculum. There are certain design principles that need to be followed in taking responsibility to provide access for Long Term English Learners.

2.5.1. Basic principles for solving the problems of Long Term English Learners

The first principle is to ensure that Long Term English Learners’ specific needs have to be addressed. It is the process where solutions need to be designed with the recognition that students’ needs are specific and different from newcomer or developing English Learners and are also different from struggling English speakers of native origin. In addition, there is the need to include diversity needs within the population of Long Term English Learners by providing an assessment that allows finding out the main problems experienced.

In addition, the language development is more than basic literacy development. It is significant to ensure that Long Term English Learners are exposed to both developments. It is important to include courses, strategies or instructions that focus on literacy improvement, but it is not enough. It is essential to ensure that Long Term English Learners are developed in all the four domains of language, such as speaking, listening, writing and reading to be able to function in a number of contexts (Feldman & Kinsella, 2008).

Furthermore, there are gaps in both language development and academic performance among Long Term English Learners, and it is significant to address these gaps. It is essential to build skills that address gaps of Long Term English Learners by the entire school administration, such as administrators, counselors or mainstream content teachers. There is the need to put more focus on improving and supporting Long Term English Learners’ learning process. All teachers need to teach language development in their subjects of specialization. In addition, English Language Development Classes need to be spacious for language development required for the academic success in classes.

The other principle is to remember the significant role of primary language development. The home language for an English Learner plays a significant role in his/her general literary and language development. The level to which its development occurs has an effect on mastery of English competence, as well (Faltis & Wolfe, 1999). It is recommended that schools implement methods of supporting the home language apart from English and to teach students matters of contrastive analysis and interaction across a number of languages. Students cannot have high levels of literacy competence if they are being restricted from using their home languages.

In addition, Long Term English Learners need to be invited, encouraged to participate in their own education. In classroom situations, teachers need to implement strategies for engaging students and to promote students’ responsibility. Students need to be informed about their own progress and its relationship with life goals. It is important to inform students about the specific courses that contribute to their pathway to college. The Long Term English Learner’s experience should include the right choice of opportunities for student’s leadership. 

In order to enable a provision of good instructions, teachers are supposed to have better information. Teachers should be aware of the presence of Long Term English Learners in their class and provide an assessment that pinpoints particular needs experienced in language development and academic competence that need to be filled by students (Olsen & Jaramillo, 1999). The following objective can be achieved through a careful study of language related requirements of the texts, as well as a sound reflection regarding the demands of the structure of the books, as well as patterns that need to be followed in courses and vocabulary that are significant for students’ knowledge to accomplish tasks in classes.

It is also important that teachers should know about the requirements of their students, such as their attitudes, experiences at school, and preferences in life. Teachers are required to look at the life experiences of students and wisdom and target on assisting them develop their independence to put more emphasis on critical thinking and finding the recommended texts that are important to students and attract their concentration. It has been observed that the majority of students learn by making connections between their knowledge base and their experiences, points of views and the information they have obtained.

Pedagogy, which focuses on supporting students to express their experiences, background, heritage and local dialect into classroom situation, enhances the process of learning and enables students enhance the overall base of their initial knowledge.

In order to empower pedagogy, teachers need to build upon their interests in the provision of care to students. There is the need to include high expectations and the capacity to communicate those prospects, as well as the belief that students have the capacity to undertake rigorous academic work. There is the need to include participation by design (Olsen, 1997). This process ensures teachers teach mainly important topics and use the right strategies that enable students to think critically and ask questions in the areas they have difficulties.

There is the need to ensure teachers engage in radical activities that create familiarity as well as focusing on the needs of students and responding to them. Thus, teachers need to adapt, shape, as well as choose or add to the curriculum what they have gained. The use of pacing guides developed for native English speakers tempt teachers to continue teaching irrespective of lack of understanding among students, and teachers tend to pass the interactive sessions that are important to Long Term English Learners. Thus, there is the need to confront and change this. In order to accomplish high quality teaching for Long Term English Learners, there is the need to go beyond using existing materials and programs to determine the gaps and needs of this group of learners (Meltzer & Hamann, 2005). Thus, schools are required to invest in knowledge for teachers and creation of skills and other methods of collaboration that enable teachers to work together in an effort to design instructions for Long Term English Learners.

2.6. Systems Issues and Policy Recommendations

The education system experiences very difficult times, due to budget shortages. The following obstacle creates challenges to visionary leaders who try to close gaps and create conditions that lead to quality education to all children. Despite the existence of these challenges, districts are coming up with methods of building programs that accomplish the needs of Long Term English Learners and create the kind of leadership that results into non-existence of Long Term English Learners (Menken, Kleyn, & Chae, 2007). The most significant barriers include: data systems that do not allow tracking of students longitudinally or production of studies of progress by duration of time within the United States, and proficiency in Language that result into lack of information for Long Term English Learners.

The other challenge to be addressed is lack of teachers who have the required knowledge and skills recommended accomplishing targeted, rigorous instructions required by Long Term English Learners.

The following are recommendations that are supposed to move California towards creating new access to quality education and correcting the harms committed and then correcting difficulties experienced by Long Term English Learners. Some of the recommendations that can be useful in improving the state of Long Term English Learners include the following.

a) Creation of a Standard state illustration of Long Term English learners and instituting methods of data collection that identify and support planning and response

It is recommended that states should adopt a better definition of Long Term Learners. Also, there is the need to create districts in states to assist in the collection and reporting of information on the number of Long Term English Learners by grade levels, as well as their improvement and their accomplishments (Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2010). Those students who reach the fourth grade should take the start from this very grade when they are observed to be not performing at the right expectations for Long term English Learners in two consecutive years. In addition, information should be collected and reported, and there should be a disaggregation of achievement and dropout rates to assist in monitoring Long Term English Learners, who are considered as a specific subgroup. Schools should also ensure they monitor the level of progress of this process by means of a specific plan for student achievement, in addition to their plan to address the requirements for Long Term English Learners.

b) Provision of the right amount of intensive Language Development facilities and academic content that enhance access to content

There is the need to invest in developing and improving English Language Development facilities, which are focused on improving English Language development standards for the purpose of addressing the full process of developing proficiency in English, such as academic language requirements of Long Term English Learners. Some peculiar criteria should be created for new materials and a grade level academic content developed that includes language objectives that are focused on English requirements of texts and enhancement of differentiated learning for English Learners at a number of proficiency levels.

c) The state compliance tools should be revised, and corrective frameworks and other methods that provide information about the expected practices with respect to English Learners should be set for expectations of achievements of students.

There is the need for the Department of Education of California to revise materials concerning compliance and methods that indicate the exact needs of Long Term English Learners as determined from a normatively improving Long Term English Learners particular interventions. A number of program directions and enhance differentiated methods to class assignments and group works, which are based on the established needs and profile, should be revised or work out (Lindholm-Leary & Borsato, 2006).

In condition, if the District School Assistance and intervention team providers are involved in activities with the district or school sites for the purpose of improving accomplishments of Long Term English Learners, it is of great importance to put more emphasis on the needs of Long Term English Learners. The following needs include: the use of intervention classes and facilities created for the purpose of achieving learning needs of protracted learners as distinct from regional-English speakers, particular English Language Development with the focus on academic language and improvement of writing skills, allocation into heterogeneous classes with intended support, and improvement of literacy in the basic language. There is also the need to develop the major components that make up the structure of Corrective Action for schools in the status of the program improvement, and specific guidance is provided for continuing on research on such subgroups.

The guideline for materials, language arts or math curriculum, as well as professional development should ensure it supports academic needs and a particular language of Long Term English Learners. In a case where it is impossible to meet the yearly advancement targets for Long Term English Learner groups, the information needs to be disaggregated based on the length of duration within the US learning institutions and proficiency levels for English Learner to create a guide for the right actions.

In addition, mechanisms should be instituted that builds the capacity and skills among teachers and administrators in California to create preparedness and skilled work with Long Term English Learners. In California, there is no designated merit for English teachers. Also, it is worth stressing that there is no differentiation for such teachers from teachers of other languages. Teachers who teach in secondary schools have credentials for single subjects. It is recommended that the English Language Development secondary credential should be developed.

In order to provide the right technical assistance within the California Department of Education, there is the need to include a professional development component for instructors and administrators of institutions in years 2, 3 and 4 with corrective actions that have impacts on Long Term English Learners. The Department of Education of California should create a task force within the district or county. Also,  specialists in English learning should develop contents and ensure it is delivered to learners. The targeted categorical funding should be used by Long Term English Learners to assist in attaining high quality professional development to enable the accomplishment of teaching needs for Long Term English Learners.

It is also important to ensure that Long Term English Learners have an access to the full curriculum. There is the need to ensure that information is collected and assessment done of the level of English Learner access to the full curriculum within California institutions.

Additionally, it is also recommended that curriculum developers revise the major components of the program for major ELA of math programs that enhance attainment of key curriculum contents. Options need to be differentiated to enable effective use of time by Long Term English learners faced with the difficulties of mastering a new language apart from other academic content (Kinsella, 2005).

Finally, more research should be done to improve the knowledge base regarding works that prevent the development of Long Term English Learners and to address the needs of such a category of Learners in secondary institutions. A special institution needs to be created for Long Term English Learners where they will manage to find out the accomplishments and lessons learnt from other districts to allow posting of new research and listing of resources. A pilot demonstration should be organized in cooperation with charity organizations to provide support to a select group of districts for development of efficient models for meeting the learning needs of Long Term English Learners. The organizations involved in the provision of Long Term English services need to work with the federal government, as well as private organizations to ensure that efficient research and funding are provided to assist in understanding the needs of Long Term English Learners and determining the most significant and efficient methods of responding to such situations.

The other area which research should be focused on is identification of particular demands of Long Term English learners and the ways in which settings for teaching Long Term English Learners is different from other settings (Jacobs, 2006). The experimental research should be conducted on lexical or syntactical requirements of Long Term English Learners, the order in which these difficulties are encountered, and the contents that are usually prevalent, and the resulting implications for assessment of the curriculum.

Furthermore, it is recommended that more research is done concerning the effect of a number of approaches applied to Long Term English Learning and acquisition or instructions. Some studies may be conducted to determine the efficiencies of the generally accepted pedagogical frameworks in a number of settings and with a different number of student populations. At the more basic level, there is the need to conduct additional research regarding questions such as the possibility of Long Term English Learning being focused on teaching explicit functions of English features to develop the student’s sociolinguistic capabilities.

According to Harklau (2002), an additional insight needs to be gained regarding a range of academic communication support or difficulties experienced by Long Term English Learners. For instance, there should be a research on methods of describing the level of English curriculum content and its effects on students’ beliefs, practices or discourse in relation to instruction. The main questions that should be included in the research should be the types of communications used by teachers internationally to influence students’ use of the English form of communication and the perception of teacher communication by students from different backgrounds.

Conclusion

The main area of focus for this project is to combine a number of sources to get a clear understanding of the learning barriers in California with respect to Long Term English Learners. The information and studies that have been demonstrated do not lead to a comprehensive conclusion required to understand the most applicable responses to this urgent difficulty. However, some actions are supposed to be taken. There is the need to take action and see the reality of a number of Long Term English Learners who need to be served properly by schools. There is the need to recognize that implementing weak programs and approaches have resulted in a struggle for many students each year, and failing continuously. It is high time for the new policies to be created for mobilization at the state and district levels and directions and support for institutions to deal with the needs of Long Term English Learners in the secondary institutions to be provided, and the conditions that are dealt with elementary grades that contribute to the development of long-term failure to be ensured. Leaders also need to stand together with communities involved in English learning and include Long Term English Learners in their schools.

The main themes to have emerged from the review include: contexts of teaching Long Term English Learners, varieties of language that need to be used to reflect the disciplines and subdisciplines across a number of settings, features of language, such as vocabulary in academics, grammar and discourse, as well as their relation with modalities of listening, speaking or writing. The frameworks created in the literature review put much emphasis on all these elements. The other conclusion drawn from the literature review is that instruction can be affected by teachers’ particular views concerning Long Term English Learners. 

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